Powell Tate, the DC strategic communications firm founded by Carter consigliere the late Jody Powell, and Sheila Tate, an adviser to the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, annually holds a reception to celebrate the First Amendment. The celebration takes place on Sept. 18, one day after Constitution Day, marking the signing of the Constitution on September 17, 1787. It’s always a grand occasion, particularly when the September weather is balmy. Many journalism groups, including the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, are on hand to raise a glass to our rights as citizens and journalists.
This year, Sept. 18 also was the day the President of Ukraine spoke to a joint session of Congress, urging U.S. help for his embattled country.
Both events reminded me of my good fortune to have worked as a journalist and as a public interest advocate in a democracy, no matter how flawed or polarized. It also brought back memories of the Ukrainian activists I met nearly a decade ago, who, for a time, seemed so close to pursuing their democratic dreams.
Even after winning independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the Ukraine struggled for more than a decade to build a society where human rights were respected, elections meant something and a free press could hold government accountable.
But in 2004, people formed a mass movement, dubbed the Orange Revolution, to protest a rigged election that was about to deny power to a reformer, Viktor Yushchenko. Election returns were blatantly recalculated in an attempt to keep power in the hands of a pro-Russian politician, Viktor Yanukovych, whose political base was in Donetsk, now the epicenter of the current scrisis. Yushchenko’s campaign was stymied by the state-run media’s biased coverage. He was harassed by government spies, and became seriously ill from dioxin poisoning, likely the work of the opposition. But the people’s voices were so great the reformer ultimately assumed the presidency.
(Yanukovych ultimately had a second act in the Ukraine, and as President, his refusal to sign an agreement linking his country more closely to Europe led to demonstrations that forced him out of office. The tumult gave Russian president Vladimir Putin an excuse to move in, take control of Crimea, and to stir up and aid the opposition elsewhere in the country.)
In 2005, I was vice president for advocacy for the good-government group, Common Cause. I was asked by Freedom House to fly to Kiev to conduct an intensive training on whistle-blowing for new Ukrainian activists. It was a wonderful group. They had all played roles in the Orange Revolution. And they were bursting with enthusiasm. They wanted to hold this new democracy accountable. They wanted to learn how to get the information they needed to call attention to the government’s flaws.
I still have the binder I brought with me, listing the students and their aspirations. Most were engaged in local democracy. One group wanted to hold elected officials in Odessa accountable for keeping their campaign promises. Another was monitoring the allocation of land in Kiev and other cities, to make sure that the public had a say in those decisions. Some activists wanted to measure the effectiveness of youth initiatives in the Kirovograd region, while others were speaking up for rural voters, working to ensure their access to information about local public authorities.
We discussed a whole range of tactics to hold officials’ feet to the fire. Somehow we communicated through a mixture of English, Ukrainian, Russian and German.
I kept a list of some of the goals they came up with: We will hold five workshops to educate ‘grass-tops’ – the heads of local organizations — about civic engagement; We will send our research product to ten journalists. We will create a rapid response team when our calls for reform are not answered.
They were not naïve. They understood that Yushchenko was no saint. And they knew their country had serious problems with corruption. We discussed the need for an independent civil service, transparency when it came to campaign contributions, laws to protect whistle-blowers. I told them that we still struggled with these reforms in the United States.
But they were so proud of what they had accomplished. On a rainy, bitterly cold night in Kiev, they took me on a special, Orange Revolution tour. We walked miles in the cold drizzle, as they pointed out the spots where the demonstrators had massed. They told me about placing large television monitors in view of the soldiers defending government buildings, so that they could see the protesters, and comprehend the power of this mass movement. They gave me a small orange scarf, a souvenir of the revolution. It was the best walking tour I ever had.
Back in the classroom, the enthusiasm was tempered by wariness. I was taken aback when one young woman asked me: “When you criticize the government, what do you do when there’s a knock on your door and you are threatened?”
I did not have an answer for her then. I don’t have one for her now.